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杨海乐,危起伟,陈家宽.选择容量价值:一个新的生态系统服务价值指标.生态学报,2020,40(10):3155~3167 本文二维码信息
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选择容量价值:一个新的生态系统服务价值指标
Ecosystem services optional capacity value: A new indicator for valuation of ecosystem services
投稿时间:2019-03-07  修订日期:2020-02-15
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jkchen@fudan.edu.cn 
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摘要:
对生态系统服务进行价值评估有助于落实生态系统的科学管理和推动生态补偿的科学实施。然而,传统的生态系统服务价值评估方法在管理实践应用中存在明显的局限性。为了规避这些局限性,另辟一条对生态系统服务价值评估的新思路,提出了描述生态系统服务价值的新指标——"选择容量价值"。选择容量价值以两个事实为基本依据:1)如果失去了任何一项生存所必需的生态系统服务(比如氧气、水),那么人类就无法生存,亦即人类经济社会活动所产生的价值是建立在消费该生态系统服务的基础上的;2)如果没有人类活动的存在,那么生态系统就给人类提供不了任何价值,亦即生态系统服务价值的度量是建立在生态系统服务所支持的人类经济社会活动所产生的价值上的。选择容量价值是指,一项人类生存生产所必需的生态系统服务,其总量为消费该生态系统服务的消费活动所提供的选择自由度(即选择容量)与该消费活动所产生的经济社会活动总价值的乘积,用非货币单位来计量。通过一个案例——对珠江流域的水资源供应的选择容量价值的估算,揭示选择容量价值对理解和量化生态系统服务价值的新洞察。结果显示,选择容量价值能够直观而综合地反映生态系统服务总量、生态系统服务消费量、社会经济活动总价值之间的关系,为理解和量化生态系统服务价值提供新视角,也为理解和量化上下游间的生态系统服务输移的价值核算提供新思路。这对当前的生态系统服务价值研究范式具有补充作用。
Abstract:
The valuation of ecosystem services (ESs) is helpful for effective ES management and scientific payment for ecosystem services (PES). However, there are many limitations to traditional ES valuation approaches, including the theoretical challenges and the practical difficulties. These limitations cause many difficulties in the practice of ES management and PES. To circumvent these limitations, we proposed a new indicator for the valuation ES, which we termed the ES optional capacity value (OCV). The OCV was based on two axioms: (1) human life would end if we lose any essential ES for human survival (such as oxygen or freshwater); and (2) ecosystems cannot provide any benefits to people without human activities. OCV indicates the optional capacity of supporting the total value produced by a human's economic and social activities (TVPH) provided by the total volume of an ES that was indispensable to human survival. OCV was described by the product of TVPH and the selective degree of freedom. The selective degree of freedom was evaluated by the average uncertainty of selecting the ES consumption from the total ES volume. Then, we demonstrated the new insights into OCV to assist in the understanding and quantification of ES, based on a simple case study that valued the OCV of water provision in Zhujiang River Basin (Pearl River Basin), China. The results showed that OCV could directly reflect the relationship among the total volume of an ES, the consumption volume of an ES, and the TVPH. OCV provided a new insight for understanding and measuring the value of ES. In particular, the OCV provided a clear insight into understanding and measuring the value of ES subsidies between regions. It has potential to form a significant framework for valuing ES as a complementary approach to traditional ES valuation.
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